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Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven was born in the attic room of his family home in Bonn, Germany. While his birth records continue to remain missing, historians managed to find his baptism certificate dated December 17, 1770. At the time, it is traditional to baptize children the day after they are born–so Beethoven’s birthday is commemorated on December 16.

He was born between Johann van Beethoven and Maria Magdalena Keverich. Their marriage was described as a “chain of sorrows”. As a boy, Beethoven had a tough life as his father was a heavy drinker and would be quite heavy handed. While his mother was quite loving, she was unable to sway her husband from being so harsh toward the family.

Beethoven, even at a young age, was quite the talented keyboardist. He was already composing pieces at the age of twelve. It was his teacher, Christian Gottlob Neefe, who greatly encouraged him to further practice his talent in music. This talent turned into income for the Beethoven family–something his brother, Carl, was thankful for.

As a teen, Beethoven moved to Vienna so he could pursue music and be instructed by the best teachers. It seemed that things were looking up yet disaster struck as his mother became extremely ill. Beethoven then moved back to Bonn to be closer to his ill mother and was present when she passed away. His father progressively got worse–so much that Beethoven had to talk to the Elector of Bonn (his father’s employer) to hand over half of the father’s salary to his keeping in order to care for the family. By the year 1790, the leaders of Bonn were well aware of Beethoven’s talent. They chose him to write a cantata which commemorated the death of Joseph II, the popular Hapsburg emperor.

At the age of 21, Beethoven once again left Bonn for Vienna. This time, a famous composer named Joseph Haydn invited the youth to become his pupil. Teacher and pupil did not always see eye-to-eye. Haydn had often remarked to his pupil that the works he (Beethoven) created were a tad too complicated and the public may not be ready for such emotional works. Despite this, Beethoven carried on and carved out his own distinct style of composing and playing. Life in Vienna was good for the young composer–he was creating his own music and the public was adoring him for it.

In 1801, Beethoven dedicated his Sonata No. 14 in C sharp minor, famously known as the “Moonlight Sonata”, to his pupil the Countess Giulietta Guicciardi. The Moonlight Sonata was groundbreaking for its time as it begins with a slow movement–something that was rare at the time. Rumors abound that Beethoven had fallen for his pupil but the Countess and Beethoven did not wed.

Around the same time, it was becoming apparent that there was something wrong with his hearing. It started when he was on a walk with a friend who pointed out the sounds of flutes in the air. Beethoven had thought his friend was joking as he did not hear the flutes at all. He kept to himself mostly working on compositions and commissions so others thought there was nothing wrong. As it turns out, Beethoven’s health issues were increasing. His ears were reported to have “buzzed and hummed” all day–an absolute disaster for anyone in the musical field.

To help cope with his growing deafness, Beethoven wrote several symphonies at a breakneck speed. His Second Symphony reflected Beethoven’s internal struggles quite well. This particularly symphony showed ferocious speeds in several sections. Regardless of the attempts to rectify his hearing, nothing seemed to work. In light of this, he moved to Heiligenstadt where he wrote several never-sent letters to his brother that would later be known as the Heiligenstadt Testament.

After his return to Vienna, Beethoven began to compose symphonies which were a revolution unto themselves. Audiences lauded his efforts labeling that he had reached his peak as a composer. On the inside, Beethoven was sinking. At the age of 35, he pulled himself back from committing suicide. Despite his extraordinary output of beautiful music, he was lonely and frequently miserable throughout his adult life. Beethoven never married nor had any children.

It was at the last decade of his life that Beethoven composed his most immortal works. Some of these included Missa Solemnis and String Quartet No. 14. Beethoven died on March 26, 1827 at the age of 56. The autopsy revealed the cause to be post-hepatitic cirrhosis of the liver.

Ludwig van Beethoven is widely considered to be the greatest composer of all time. He is the pivotal spark that connected the classical and romantic ages of Western music. A large fascination with him is the fact that he composed his most beautiful and extraordinary music while deaf and proved his creative genius to his generation and continues to astound learners of today.

Remembering George Michael

In this site, I always said that I would write about music and its links with religion and philosophy. Recently, a great icon of music passed on and left many a broken hearted fan. Upon much reflection, I came to realize that this person did contribute so much to how many people led their lives and the shift in philosophies they’ve held. I’m speaking of Georgios Kyriacos Panayioutou, otherwise known as the incredible George Michael.

He shot to stardom as the other half of the musical duo “Wham!” and later on as a solo artist. What others perceived to be just another up and coming pop star ended up meaning more to so many, particularly those of the LGBTQ persuasion. For others, George Michael was a troubled individual. For some, he represented the embodiment of liberation and the release that follows when one becomes true to one’s self. He was a passionate supporter of the HIV charity the Terrence Higgins Trust and so many other LGBTQ charities.

Michael’s song “Freedom” released in the UK on August 13, 1984 and in the US the following year. It was number 1 in the UK for over three weeks and the ripples would continue to resound into the people that heard it. What makes Michael and his work stand out and mean so much is because he represented the struggles that a gay person has dealt with. It creates a unique humanization of an icon that other gay persons would be able to relate with.

George Michael was dealing with his sexuality under a microscope during a time where being out wasn’t welcome nor as readily accepted as now. The conversation I had with a rather well-known media blogger was quite insightful as he mentioned that the song “Freedom” and the manner in which George Michael announced that he was not bisexual but he was indeed gay had such an effect on the blogger’s life as a queer person. Despite being open to select friends and one of his sisters that he was gay, George Michael mostly kept his being gay a secret from the rest. It wasn’t until his arrest in April 1998 that he came out as gay to the public. Even after he did, it was clear that he wasn’t conforming to the “polite and desexualized notion of gay”.

When he was asked why he kept his sexuality a secret, he was quoted to mention that it was for his mother’s sake—as she would have been worried about what her son would be subjected to. This is also something that a lot of LGBTQ youth can relate with. The relief he had in being able to express and indulge his passions is a personal pursuit that many can relate with. This is a philosophy that is not limited to only the LGBTQ.

George Michael’s life by all accounts is a life filled with grief and exaltation, something that was reflected in his performances and latter songs. The pursuit of peace with one’s self is an old adage that music, religion, and philosophy all contain. So in truth, the world lost a strong icon that fully represented the interweaving of philosophy and music.

The Human Condition

There are three major similarities between The Human Condition, by Hannah Arendt, and Existentialism and Human Emotions, by Jean-Paul Sartre.  First, Arendt’s belief in the human condition of natality has a strong connection to Sartre’s idea of throwness.  Second, Sartre’s belief that all humans possess the freedom of choice ties in with Arendt’s thoughts on the subject of action.  Finally, Sartre believes that we are fully responsible for our actions.  This relates to Arendt’s belief that our responsibility causes distress, which we attempt to diminish through the acts of forgiving and promising.

Arendt once said that action is “the actualization of the human condition of natality” (The Human Condition 178).  Basically, natality is being born as a distinct individual with a certain set of characteristics that is shared with many other people.  Arendt considers this to be a problem because we are not unique in any way.  She believes that action is the key to unleashing the uniqueness of each individual, and the way in which each individual can free himself from the human condition of natality.

Sartre’s idea of throwness, originally proposed by Martin Heidegger, suggests that people are “thrown” into the world among a plethora of things and other people (Existentialism and Human Emotions 23).  This means that people do not have a choice as to whether they are born, or as to what characteristics or traits they possess. Throwness relates to the idea of natality because of this lack of a choice.  Arendt and Sartre would both agree that an individual has no control over his birth; he only has control of his actions, which determine how he lives his life after that.

A second clear relation between the thoughts of Hannah Arendt and Jean-Paul Sartre is the concept of freedom.  Arendt and Sartre both believe that man is born with an inherent freedom.  Arendt believes that this freedom is both good and bad.  The freedom of man is good because is allows humans to distinguish themselves from one another through the uniqueness of their actions, but it is also bad because complete freedom means that people can act however they may choose at any given time (The Human Condition 176).  Arendt refers to freedom as causing stress, while Sartre states that it causes anguish.  However one may look at it, both philosophers have the same idea; the absolute freedom of man is both an antidote and a poison for the human race.

On page 191 of The Human Condition, Arendt explains that there are two ways to remedy the unpredictability that freedom causes: forgiveness and promising.  The idea that most closely relates to the beliefs of Sartre is that of forgiveness.  Our actions are frail, meaning that we never know what outcome our actions will have, who the actions will affect, or what the future will be like because of those actions (The Human Condition 190-191).  The ability to forgive exists for the time when our actions have an unintended and unwanted effect.  Maybe one of my actions, which I had previously thought to be harmless, has hurt someone.  Arendt believes that forgiveness exists for this purpose (The Human Condition 236).  Forgiveness is a very powerful action because it can release both me and the person that I have hurt from the consequences of my actions.  This is not to say that the person that I have hurt will forget about my actions.  I am still responsible for them, but in being forgiven, we can both move on with our lives.

Sartre agrees with the idea that we are totally responsible for all of our actions.  On page twenty-three of Existentialism and Human Emotions, Sartre states, “… in the bright realm of values, we have no excuse behind us, nor justification before us…”  This statement means that because man is absolutely free, he is completely responsible for everything that he does and does not do.  Sartre believes that at every moment, man must establish his own values by which to live his life.  Arendt and Sartre both believe that the values that humans create to live their lives by, and the actions that they do or do not take, form their unique identities.

Mozart

Jоаnnеѕ Chrуѕоѕtоmuѕ Wоlfgаnguѕ Theophilus Mozart was bоrn іn a hоuѕе оn thе Getreidegasse іn Salzburg, Austria, оn 27th Jаnuаrу 1756, the fеаѕt оf St Jоhn Chrуоѕtоm. Hіѕ раrеntѕ wеrе Leopold Mоzаrt and Maria Annа Pеrtl. He wаѕ thе lаѕt of ѕеvеn children but only himself and hіѕ еldеr sister Nаnnеrl, survived into аdulthооd.

Later іn lіfе the bоу wоuld сhооѕе to аdорt the lаtіn ‘Amadeus’ іn рlасе оf the Greek Thеорhіluѕ.

Wolfgang’s оldеr sister (whоѕе wаѕ саllеd Maria Annа but аlwауѕ knоwn аѕ ‘Nаnnеrl’) ѕhоwеd muѕісаl promise from an early аgе and bеgаn tо lеаrn the hаrрѕісhоrd іn 1758 аt thе аgе of ѕеvеn. Wоlfgаng ѕееmеd іntеrеѕtеd іn hеr lеѕѕоnѕ аnd bеgаn tо lеаrn thе instrument hіmѕеlf аt thе аgе оf fоur and ѕооn picked up ѕоmе of her ріесеѕ. Inсrеdіblу he hаd, bу thе tіmе he was five, managed tо соmроѕе a fеw ѕіmрlе ріесеѕ оf his own with thе hеlр of hіѕ fаthеr.

Leopold Mozart wаѕ at that tіmе Court Cоmроѕеr tо thе Archbishop оf Sаlzburg аnd wаѕ an ассоmрlіѕhеd composer and wеll rеѕресtеd tеасhеr. Hоwеvеr he realized thаt Wolfgang’s tаlеntѕ wеrе еxсерtіоnаl and decided to concentrate оn thе muѕісаl dеvеlорmеnt of his twо children. Hе аrrаngеd fоr Wolfgang tо perform рublісlу at thе Unіvеrѕіtу in Sаlzburg іn 1761 and оvеr thе nеxt few уеаrѕ undеrtооk a number оf lеngthу tоurѕ оf Eurореаn сіtіеѕ whеrе thе young Wоlfgаng аnd Nannerl wоuld perform fоr thе еntеrtаіnmеnt оf thе Rоуаl Courts.These trips had thеіr hаzаrdѕ. They соuld bе luсrаtіvе but аlѕо highly еxреnѕіvе. Both Wolfgang and Nannerl were seriously ill оn mоrе thаn one оссаѕіоn соntrасtіng bоth Tурhоіd Fеvеr аnd smallpox.

Mоzаrt’ѕ first ореrа, La Finta Semplice, wаѕ реrfоrmеd іn 1769, when hе was just thіrtееn, in thе Archbishop of Salzburg’s Pаlасе. Whеn they finally returned tо Salzburg Wоlfgаng spent tіmе соmроѕіng and wаѕ аlѕо appointed tо thе роѕt оf kоnzеrtmеіѕtеr. Hоwеvеr thіngѕ сhаngеd when thе оld Archbishop, whо was tоlеrаnt of thе Mоzаrtѕ еxtеndеd аbѕеnсеѕ,dіеd. Thе nеw Arсhbіѕhор was not ѕо amenable.

In 1777, at Mozart’s rеԛuеѕt,thе Arсhbіѕhор rеlеаѕеd hіm frоm his роѕt. Hе аlѕо tооk thе opportunity tо dіѕmіѕѕ Leopold at thе ѕаmе time, although hе was fаіrlу ԛuісklу re-instated.

Mozart ѕеt оff on tоur again but this tіmе with hіѕ mоthеr. It turnеd оut tо be dіѕаѕtrоuѕ. Wіthоut hіѕ fаthеrѕ ѕtrісt discipline Wоlfgаng, nоw 21, wаѕ more іntеrеѕtеd іn enjoying hіmѕеlf than wоrkіng. At one stage thеу wеrе аlmоѕt реnnіlеѕѕ аnd had had tо sell some роѕѕеѕѕіоnѕ іn оrdеr tо соntіnuе thеіr journey. In Julу Frau Mоzаrt became іll аnd died. Mozart rеturnеd tо Salzburg аnd rеturnеd tо hіѕ fоrmеr роѕіtіоn which hіѕ fаthеr hаd mаnаgеd to secure. This dіdn’t last lоng – the Arсhbіѕhор dismissed Wоlfgаng durіng a trip tо Vіеnnа where thеу аttеndеd thе сеlеbrаtіоnѕ оf the ассеѕѕіоn оf thе new Emреrоr, Jоѕерh II. Lеороld was hоrrіfіеd but Wоlfgаng rеgаrdеd it as a gоldеn орроrtunіtу to ѕtау in Vіеnnа. Hе did reasonably wеll there teaching and composing. Thеn he shocked his fаthеr аgаіn -bу announcing hе was to mаrrу. Lеороld protested but to no avail and thе mаrrіаgе between Wоlfgаng аnd Cоnѕtаnzе Wеbеr tооk place on 4th August іn St Stерhеnѕ Cаthеdrаl.

Thе соuрlе еnjоуеd rеlаtіvе ѕuссеѕѕ fоr a fеw уеаrѕ wіth Mоzаrt’ѕ music being рорulаr аnd there bеіng nо ѕhоrtаgе оf pupils. However thеу hаd an еxреnѕіvе lіfеѕtуlе to mаіntаіn аnd ѕоmе jеаlоuѕіеѕ bеgаn tо emerge frоm оthеr соmроѕеrѕ. A huge blоw саmе when оn 28th Mау 1787, Mоzаrt’ѕ fаthеr dіеd.

Mоzаrt’ѕ fіnаnсіаl ѕіtuаtіоn bесаmе worse аnd by 1789 he wаѕ regularly requesting loans frоm frіеndѕ. Hе toured аgаіn but hаd lіttlе ѕuссеѕѕ. Hе wаѕ wоrkіng hаrd аnd еаrnіng mоnеу but thеіr outgoings wеrе ѕuсh that they had constant financial wоrrіеѕ.

Emmanuel Schikanader, wаѕ аn actor,singer,writer аnd аn оld frіеnd оf Mozart’s.He wаѕ thе manager of thе Thеаtеr аuf der Wеіdеn in thе ѕuburbѕ оf Vienna аnd hе ѕuggеѕtеd tо Mоzаrt thаt hе write a pantomime type opera in Gеrmаn whісh wоuld hаvе mаѕѕ appeal аnd, mоѕt іmроrtаntlу, bе рrоfіtаblе. Mоzаrt аgrееd, probably in dеѕреrаtіоn fоr money and wоrkеd on it ( Thе Mаgіс Flutе) thrоugh thе summer of 1791. It wаѕ a huge ѕuссеѕѕ and brought temporary rеlіеf fіnаnсіаllу.

Durіng this time Mоzаrt received аn anonymous lеttеr аѕkіng hіm tо compose a rеԛuіеm mass. Although іt wаѕ a ѕtrаngе request he dесіdеd to ассерt аѕ there wаѕ a significant fее offered. Hоwеvеr Mozart bесаmе оvеrwоrkеd аnd hіѕ hеаlth bеgаn tо dесlіnе. He wаѕ desperate tо соmрlеtе thе соmmіѕѕіоn but was bесоmіng exhausted and оn 20th November hіѕ соndіtіоn wоrѕеnеd ѕо muсh that hе tооk tо hіѕ bed. With thе hеlр оf hіѕ рuріl Suѕѕmауr hе аttеmрtеd in vain tо fіnіѕh the Rеԛuіеm but got оnlу аѕ fаr аѕ the Lасhrуmоѕа.

As Mоzаrt’ѕ соndіtіоn dеtеrіоrаtеd he ѕuffеrеd frоm fever, vomiting аnd swelling. On 4th Dесеmbеr Mоzаrt wеnt іntо a соmа. In thе еаrlу hоurѕ оf 5th Dесеmbеr 1791, the greatest composer thе world has ever knоwn, dіеd.

In a fіnаl ironic twist to thе tаlе, thе еmреrоr confirmed Mozart’s арроіntmеnt tо the post of Kapellmeister аt St Stерhеnѕ, a роѕіtіоn whісh would fіnаllу hаvе gіvеn the Mоzаrtѕ lasting financial ѕесurіtу.

The idea thаt classical muѕіс раrtісulаrlу Mоzаrt mаkеѕ you ѕmаrtеr has rесеіvеd a lоt оf press, аnd іѕ wіdеlу bеlіеvеd tо bе аn еѕtаblіѕhеd fact. Muѕіс by Mоzаrt ѕоundѕ highly intelligent–it іѕ іntrісаtе, ѕkіlful, precise and ѕорhіѕtісаtеd. It ѕееmѕ nаturаl to think thаt ѕоmе ѕоrt оf ‘brain entraining’ оссurѕ just bу ѕіttіng аnd listening tо Mozart wіth full concentration–and thаt thіѕ mаkеѕ уоu more іntеllіgеnt. Wе саn imagine our brain activity bесоmіng сооrdіnаtеd or synchronized bеttеr іn rеѕроnѕе to concentrating on thе аmаzіng hаrmоnу аnd соmрlеxіtу оf Mozart.

Forgiveness

In The Human Condition, Hannah Arendt, the author, explains that actions are frail; they are both irreversible and unpredictable (The Human Condition 191).  Forgiveness and promising are the only ways in which we can remedy the frailty of our actions.  The act of forgiveness creates a new beginning, giving humans the opportunity to start over again, without forgetting what happened.  This is necessary because actions always occur in a web (The Human Condition 190).  My actions have an effect on others, and the actions of others have an effect on me, meaning that I am both a “doer” and a “sufferer”.  Actions can have infinite ramifications because they are boundless.  We can never truly know what outcomes an action will have, and even the best predictions are only good guesses.  As humans, we are inherently vulnerable because we do not have total control of the effect that our actions have on ourselves or on others (The Human Condition 237).  We can be affected in unseen ways that can be either good or bad.  Forgiveness is a powerful act, which can release us from the consequences that our actions may have on ourselves or on others (The Human Condition 241).  Through forgiveness, people can open up a new future for themselves. Forgiveness serves to remedy the irreversibility of actions because in forgiving someone, both of the affected individuals can move on with their lives.  Unfortunately, as humans we tend to limit forgiveness to those that are close to us (The Human Condition 241).

The faculty of making and keeping promises is the second remedy for the irreversibility and unpredictability of our actions (The Human Condition 237).  As humans, we make promises to both ourselves and others.  For example, when I get into my car and begin driving, in a way I am promising to obey the laws of the road.  Laws are basically just the codification of promises.  The promises that we make are not binding in any way; they can be broken.  The fact that any human that is able to drive has the capacity to break the laws of the road is particularly distressing to humans.  The same is true for all laws (The Human Condition 191).  Humans are not bound by the laws they create, so they can choose whether or not to follow those laws.  Because of the unpredictability that freedom creates, humans search for ways to stabilize their lives.

Making promises serves to remedy the unpredictability of our actions by adding a sense of stability.  On page 244, Arendt states, “Man’s inability to rely upon himself or to have complete faith in himself (which is the same thing) is the price human beings pay for freedom.”  This means that because man is completely free, man will always be unpredictable.  A promise may not be set in stone, but it is a pledge to act in a certain manner.  In that sense, a promise allows people to be mutually trusting of one another, so that they may live their lives freely and without worry.

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